Insights into Cultural, Social, and Psychological Factors that Influence Foreign Language Learning




Foreign Language Learning, Classroom, Social factors, Psychological Factors, Cultural factors, Teachers, Students, Attitude, Motivation


The significance of socio-cultural and psychological aspects in acquiring foreign languages is receiving more attention. Foreign language education has become a significant component of the global academic system, wherein people acquire languages order than their first language in the classroom. Different factors have been analyzed to impact learning a second language in the classroom significantly. This article explores various social, cultural, and psychological factors influencing students’ performance in a foreign language. The focus is to evaluate the impacts of these factors and assess how the participants rate the effects. The study is quantitative, and data was gathered through a structured questionnaire ranked using the Likert Scale. A total of 200 participants were randomly selected for the study, including twenty teachers that facilitated the participation of the students, mainly during the distribution of the questionnaire through digital systems. Analysis was conducted using appropriate statistical tools, such as percentage values, mean and standard deviation. A total of nine social, cultural, and psychological factors were analyzed, including interaction patterns in the classroom, rapport with teachers, lack of motivation, the attitude of learners, general cultural concerns, initiation issues, self-consciousness, fear of making mistakes, and classroom anxiety. These factors exert impact at varying degrees on the learning of English as a foreign language in the classroom. The analysis indicates that psychological factors exert more influence on the students, followed by social factors.


Abbiss, W. S. (2020). Proposing a post-heritage critical framework: The Crown, ambiguity, and media self-consciousness. Television & New Media, 21(8), 825-841.

Abdullaev, Z. K. (2021). Second language learning: Issues and implications. Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research, 10(4), 824-827.

Awabdeh, A. A., & Albashtawi, A. H. (2023). Predictable Factors that Help Students Engage in Online EFL Classroom and their Relationship to Self-Management. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 18(1).

Bai, B., & Wang, J. (2023). The role of growth mindset, self-efficacy and intrinsic value in self-regulated learning and English language learning achievements. Language teaching research, 27(1), 207-228.

Bao, Y., & Liu, S. (2021). The influence of affective factors in second language acquisition on foreign language teaching. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 9(03), 463.

Browning, M. H., Larson, L. R., Sharaievska, I., Rigolon, A., McAnirlin, O., Mullenbach, L., ... & Alvarez, H. O. (2021). Psychological impacts from COVID-19 among university students: Risk factors across seven states in the United States. PloS one, 16(1), e0245327.

Cheng, L. (2021). The implications of EFL/ESL teachers' emotions in their professional identity development. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 755592.

Dewaele, J. M., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2019). The predictive power of multicultural personality traits, learner and teacher variables on foreign language enjoyment and anxiety. In Evidence-based second language pedagogy (pp. 263-286). Routledge.

Ergün, A. L. P., & Dewaele, J. M. (2021). Do well-being and resilience predict the foreign language teaching enjoyment of teachers of Italian?. System, 99, 102506.

Esra, M. E. Ş. E., & Sevilen, Ç. (2021). Factors influencing EFL students’ motivation in online learning: A qualitative case study. Journal of Educational Technology and Online Learning, 4(1), 11-22. Retrieved from

Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., & Hyams, N. (2018). An Introduction to Language (w/MLA9E Updates). Cengage Learning.

Getie, A. S. (2020). Factors affecting the attitudes of students towards learning English as a foreign language. Cogent Education, 7(1), 1738184.

Hernandez, R. M., Garay-Argandoña, R., Lira, L. A. N., Fuster-Guillén, D., Garay, J. P. P., & Ocaña-Fernandez, Y. (2021). Investigating Instructors' and Students' Attitudes towards the Effectiveness of Having Target Cultural Knowledge on Learning English as a Foreign Language. International Journal of Society, Culture & Language, 9(3), 64-72.

Li, C. (2020). A positive psychology perspective on Chinese EFL students’ trait emotional intelligence, foreign language enjoyment and EFL learning achievement. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 41(3), 246-263.

Liu, M., & Yuan, R. (2021). Changes in and effects of foreign language classroom anxiety and listening anxiety on Chinese undergraduate students’ English proficiency in the COVID-19 context. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 670824.

Onishchuk, I., Ikonnikova, M., Antonenko, T., Kharchenko, I., Shestakova, S., Kuzmenko, N., & Maksymchuk, B. (2020). Characteristics of foreign language education in foreign countries and ways of applying foreign experience in pedagogical universities of Ukraine. Revista Romaneasca Pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, 12(3), 44-65.

Peña, E. D., Bedore, L. M., & Torres, J. (2021). Assessment of language proficiency and dominance in monolinguals and bilinguals. Bilingualism Across the Lifespan: Opportunities and Challenges for Cognitive Research in a Global Society. Edited by Wendy S. Francis. New York: Routledge, 88-105.

Roy, D., Tripathy, S., Kar, S. K., Sharma, N., Verma, S. K., & Kaushal, V. (2020). Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian journal of psychiatry, 51, 102083.

Russell, V. (2020). Language anxiety and the online learner. Foreign Language Annals, 53(2), 338-352.

Shao, K., Pekrun, R., Marsh, H. W., & Loderer, K. (2020). Control-value appraisals, achievement emotions, and foreign language performance: A latent interaction analysis. Learning and Instruction, 69, 101356.

Wang, X., & Zhang, W. (2021). Psychological anxiety of college Students' foreign language learning in online course. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 598992.

Wang, Y., Derakhshan, A., & Zhang, L. J. (2021). Researching and practicing positive psychology in second/foreign language learning and teaching: the past, current status and future directions. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 731721.

Wei, H., Gao, K., & Wang, W. (2019). Understanding the relationship between grit and foreign language performance among middle school students: The roles of foreign language enjoyment and classroom environment. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 1508.

Zhang, T., Chen, X., Hu, J., & Ketwan, P. (2021). EFL students' preferences for written corrective feedback: Do error types, language proficiency, and foreign language enjoyment matter?. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 660564.