An Investigation of Students Phonological Awareness in Speaking


  • Ika Sastrawati Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar, Indonesia
  • Haslinda Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar, Indonesia
  • Salma Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar, Indonesia
  • Fadillah N Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar, Indonesia
  • Ibrahim R Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar, Indonesia



Students’ phonological, Phonological Awareness, Speaking


The study is designed to address the fundamental question of how students understand phonological awareness. Learning to read is based on phonological awareness, the purpose for the student to be able to recognize the sounds of the spoken language, which of course enables the recognition of the spoken voice. In this case, speaking, which is one of the most important English language skills, also plays an important role, and the thought processes of languages are interconnected. The research used in this context was a quantitative method. Third-semester students of Universitas Muhammadiyah Makasssar were used as subjects, but only five students became research subjects to understand phonological awareness. The medium used in this study was a text medium. All correspondents used English. Based on the results of the study, it was revealed that three out of five subjects understood the four indicators of phonological awareness and two of them understood very little or did not understand the four indicators of phonological awareness. This shows that understanding students who were the subject of the third semester of the English Language Education study program already good and the total number of research results is 77.5 or in terms of quality was good.


Anggayana, I., Budasi, I. G., & Kusuma, I. R. W. (2019). Social Dialectology Study of Phonology in Knowing English Student Speaking Ability. Asian EFL Journal, 25(5.2), 225-244.

Beaumont, B. (2020). Identifying in-service support for lecturers working in English medium instruction contexts. Internationalising Learning in Higher Education: The Challenges of English as a Medium of Instruction, 83-110.

Benway, N. R., Garcia, K., Hitchcock, E., McAllister, T., Leece, M. C., Wang, Q., & Preston, J. L. (2021). Associations between speech perception, vocabulary, and phonological awareness skill in school-aged children with speech sound disorders. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 64(2), 452-463.

Bhatia, T. K. (2019). World Englishes and global advertising. The handbook of world Englishes, 616-634.

Booth, J. J. (2023). Rethinking the Metre of Parzival: Iambic Verse for a Trochaic Language. Transactions of the Philological Society, 121(1), 91-116.

Cabbage, K. L., Farquharson, K., Iuzzini-Seigel, J., Zuk, J., & Hogan, T. P. (2018). Exploring the overlap between dyslexia and speech sound production deficits. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 49(4), 774-786.

Carol.J and Usha.G.(2010). Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants. /08-0139)

Darmawati, D. (2018). Improving speaking skill through mobile-assisted language learning (MALL). Jurnal Teknologi Sistem Informasi dan Aplikasi, 1(1), 24-30.

Ehri, L. C. (2020). The science of learning to read words: A case for systematic phonics instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 55, S45-S60.

Ehri, L. C. (2022). What teachers need to know and do to teach letter–sounds, phonemic awareness, word reading, and phonics. The Reading Teacher, 76(1), 53-61.

Gerde, H. K., Skibbe, L. E., Goetsch, M., & Douglas, S. N. (2019). Head Start Teachers' Beliefs and Reported Practices for Letter Knowledge. HS Dialog: The Research to Practice Journal for the Early Childhood Field, 22(2).

Goswami, U. (2019). A neural oscillations perspective on phonological development and phonological processing in developmental dyslexia. Language and Linguistics Compass, 13(5), e12328.

Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Adkins, M. (2018). The impact of supplemental handwriting and spelling instruction with first grade students who do not acquire transcription skills as rapidly as peers: A randomized control trial. Reading and Writing, 31(6), 1273-1294.

Grofčíková, S., & Máčajová, M. (2021). Rhyming in the context of the phonological awareness of pre-school children. CEPS Journal, 11(1), 115-138.

Itô, J. (2018). Syllable theory in prosodic phonology (Vol. 10). Routledge.

Kelly, C., Leitão, S., Smith-Lock, K., & Heritage, B. (2019). The effectiveness of a classroom-based phonological awareness program for 4–5-year-olds. International journal of speech-language pathology, 21(1), 101-113.

Knoop‐van Campen, C. A., Segers, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2018). How phonological awareness mediates the relation between working memory and word reading efficiency in children with dyslexia. Dyslexia, 24(2), 156-169.

Layes, S., Guendouz, M., Lalonde, R., & Rebai, M. (2022). Combined phonological awareness and print knowledge training improves reading accuracy and comprehension in children with reading disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 69(4), 1185-1199.

Lubis, Y., Harahap, N. A., & Aisyah, P. N. (2023). The Effect of Phonological Abilities for Children in Communication. Madani: Jurnal Ilmiah Multidisiplin, 1(6).

Nayak, S., Gustavson, D. E., Wang, Y., Below, J. E., Gordon, R. L., & Magne, C. L. (2022). Test of prosody via syllable emphasis (“TOPsy”): Psychometric validation of a brief scalable test of lexical stress perception. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 16, 765945.

Piasta, S. B., & Hudson, A. K. (2022). Key knowledge to support phonological awareness and phonics instruction. The Reading Teacher, 76(2), 201-210.

Pittman, R. T., Zhang, S., Binks‐Cantrell, E., Hudson, A., & Joshi, R. M. (2020). Teachers' knowledge about language constructs related to literacy skills and student achievement in low socio‐economic status schools. Dyslexia, 26(2), 200-219.

Pratiwi, A. S., Lestari, A. T., Dewi, R. S., Nurfitriani, M., Hendrawan, B., Husen, W. R., & Hariri, T. (2020, March). Students’ Phonological Awareness in PAUD IT Ihya Assunah. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1477, No. 4, p. 042069). IOP Publishing.

Ristiyana, N. A., & Pramudyawardhani, S. R. (2020). Syllable Structure Analysis on Emma Watson’ s Speech: Array. JURNAL DIALEKTIKA PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS, 8(1), 80-88.

Roskos, K., & Lenhart, L. (2020). Coming of age: Evidence-based early literacy teaching.

Saiegh-Haddad, E. (2019). What is phonological awareness in L2?. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 50, 17-27.

Sargiani, R. D. A., Ehri, L. C., & Maluf, M. R. (2022). Teaching beginners to decode consonant–vowel syllables using grapheme–phoneme subunits facilitates reading and spelling as compared with teaching whole‐syllable decoding. Reading Research Quarterly, 57(2), 629-648.

Schuele, C. M., & Boudreau, D. (2008). Phonological Awareness Intervention: Beyond and Basics. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools,39(1), 3-20.

Shifflet, R., Mattoon, C., & Bates, A. (2020). Using Tablets in a Prekindergarten Classroom to Foster Phonological Awareness. International Research in Early Childhood Education, 10(1), 1-20.

Terrell, P., & Watson, M. (2018). Laying a firm foundation: Embedding evidence-based emergent literacy practices into early intervention and preschool environments. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 49(2), 148-164.

Verhoeven, L., Perfetti, C., & Pugh, K. (2019). Cross-linguistic perspectives on second language reading. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 50, 1-6.

Wilsenach, C. (2019). Phonological awareness and reading in Northern Sotho–Understanding the contribution of phonemes and syllables in Grade 3 reading attainment. South African Journal of Childhood Education, 9(1), 1-10.

Xu, F. (2019). Towards a rational constructivist theory of cognitive development. Psychological review, 126(6), 841.

Zhao, G., & Gutierrez-Osuna, R. (2019). Using phonetic posteriorgram based frame pairing for segmental accent conversion. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, 27(10), 1649-1660.

Zhao, T. C., Boorom, O., Kuhl, P. K., & Gordon, R. (2021). Infants’ neural speech discrimination predicts individual differences in grammar ability at 6 years of age and their risk of developing speech-language disorders. Developmental cognitive neuroscience, 48, 100949.